Drawing in the Design Process (Book)

Characterising Industrial and Educational Practice

In the early days of the digital revolution in graphic design, many designers and teachers of design were convinced that the era of drawing on paper was over – that there would soon no longer be a place for craft-based drawing at any stage of the design process. It soon became apparent, however, that technological progress had not obviated the inherent value of drawing, and that, in fact, it opened up new avenues for convergent and hybrid drawing practices. This book traces the evolution of design-based drawing through analysis of a series of research projects from the 1980s to recent years that have sought to characterize the changing practices of design within various industries. Built on more than three hundred interviews with designers, academics and design students, and an exhaustive analysis of thousands of drawings, it aims to generate discussion around historical and contemporary models of the design process.  

Category: Visual Arts

Edition

Professor Pam Schenk has been involved in the investigation of the role of drawing in design since the mid-1980s and has monitored the changes due to technolgical developments, with her many publications culminating in an Intellect book entitled, Drawing in the Design Process:Characterizing Industrial and Educational Practice.

She has also taught at all levels in higher education in Art and Design, concentrating in recent years on postgraduate studies and research in design, and has been a senior academic at the Manchester Metropolitan University, Glasgow School of Art, the Birmingham Institute of Art and Design (University of Central England), Duncan of Jordanstone College (Dundee University) and the School of Art, Design and Media, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.  She is currently a research professor at the School of Textiles and Design, Heriot-Watt University.

List of Figures and Tables

Acknowledgements

Introduction

Part I – Context and Conduct of the Long-Term Study

Chapter One: Context of the Long-Term Study – Theoretical Framework

Introduction to the long-term study

The design process

Drawing for creative thinking

Drawing, memory and visual literacy

Drawing for ideation and communication

Drawing in the digital age 28 Drawing in design education

Chapter Two: Conduct of the Long-Term Study – Investigative Framework

Overview

Respondents

Variables and topics investigated

Part II – Phases of the Long-Term Study

Phase 1

Chapter Three: Drawing in the Graphic Design Industry in the Mid-1980s

Introduction to Project One

Preparation and inspiration

Briefing and ideation

Development and synthesis

Presentation and evaluation

Commissioning and specification

The importance of drawing in graphic design

Chapter Four: Developing Drawing Competence in the Mid-1980s

Introduction to Project Two

Developing drawing competence in industry and education

Curriculum planning and drawing tuition

Professional practice or artistic expression

Phase 2

Chapter Five: The Impact of Digital Technology on Drawing for Graphic Design in the 1990s

Introduction to Project Three

New uses of drawing

Individual drawing practices

Drawing in the design process following the introduction of the new technology

Preparation and inspiration

Briefing and ideation

Development and synthesis

Presentation and evaluation

Commissioning and specification

The impact of the new technology on drawing for graphic design

Phase 3

Chapter Six: Drawing in Contemporary Design Education

Introduction to Project Four

Developing drawing competence for professional practice

Drawing on the curriculum in the digital age

Curriculum planning and drawing tuition

Discipline-based diversity

Chapter Seven: Drawing in Contemporary Design Practice

Introduction to Project Five

Individual drawing practices

Drawing in the contemporary design process

Preparation and inspiration

Briefing and ideation

Development and synthesis

Presentation and evaluation

Commissioning and specification

Relative advantages of paper and screen

Part III – Characterization and Generalization

Chapter Eight: A Taxonomy of Drawing in Design

Systematic classification

The development of the taxonomy

Structure of the taxonomy of drawing in design

Categorization and characterization – Task, use and type of drawing

Categorization and characterization – Task and drawing competence

Applications of the taxonomy

Chapter Nine: Models of Drawing in Design and in Education

Introduction

The three environments of drawing in design

The three environments of teaching and learning

The student experience

Chapter Ten: Drawing Conclusions

Patterns of change in drawing practice and drawing tuition

The importance of drawing in design practice

Developing drawing competence

References

Appendices

Appendix I: Respondents in Phase 1: 1984–1989

Appendix II: Respondents in Phase 2: 1990–1999

Appendix III: Respondents in Phase 3: 2004–2015

Appendix IV: Student Respondents in the Three Phases 1984–2015

Appendix V: Advisors for the Long-Term Study – 1984–2015

Index

'An engaging study that provides comprehensive evidence of research into the field over a considerable period.'

Paul Fieldsend-Danks, Norwich University of the Arts
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